Read "Dynamo, Amazon’s Highly Available Key-value Store" Read "Bigtable, A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data" Read "Streaming Systems" 3, Watermarks Read "Streaming Systems" 1&2, Streaming 101 Read "F1, a distributed SQL database that scales" Read "Zanzibar, Google’s Consistent, Global Authorization System" Read "Spanner, Google's Globally-Distributed Database" Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 12, The Future of Data Systems IOS development with Swift Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 10&11, Batch and Stream Processing Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 9, Consistency and Consensus Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 8, Distributed System Troubles Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 7, Transactions Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 6, Partitioning Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 5, Replication Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 3&4, Storage, Retrieval, Encoding Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 1&2, Foundation of Data Systems Three cases of binary search TAMU Operating System 2 Memory Management TAMU Operating System 1 Introduction Overview in cloud computing 2 TAMU Operating System 7 Virtualization TAMU Operating System 6 File System TAMU Operating System 5 I/O and Disk Management TAMU Operating System 4 Synchronization TAMU Operating System 3 Concurrency and Threading TAMU Computer Networks 5 Data Link Layer TAMU Computer Networks 4 Network Layer TAMU Computer Networks 3 Transport Layer TAMU Computer Networks 2 Application Layer TAMU Computer Networks 1 Introduction Overview in distributed systems and cloud computing 1 A well-optimized Union-Find implementation, in Java A heap implementation supporting deletion TAMU Advanced Algorithms 3, Maximum Bandwidth Path (Dijkstra, MST, Linear) TAMU Advanced Algorithms 2, B+ tree and Segment Intersection TAMU Advanced Algorithms 1, BST, 2-3 Tree and Heap TAMU AI, Searching problems Factorization Machine and Field-aware Factorization Machine for CTR prediction TAMU Neural Network 10 Information-Theoretic Models TAMU Neural Network 9 Principal Component Analysis TAMU Neural Network 8 Neurodynamics TAMU Neural Network 7 Self-Organizing Maps TAMU Neural Network 6 Deep Learning Overview TAMU Neural Network 5 Radial-Basis Function Networks TAMU Neural Network 4 Multi-Layer Perceptrons TAMU Neural Network 3 Single-Layer Perceptrons Princeton Algorithms P1W6 Hash Tables & Symbol Table Applications Stanford ML 11 Application Example Photo OCR Stanford ML 10 Large Scale Machine Learning Stanford ML 9 Anomaly Detection and Recommender Systems Stanford ML 8 Clustering & Principal Component Analysis Princeton Algorithms P1W5 Balanced Search Trees TAMU Neural Network 2 Learning Processes TAMU Neural Network 1 Introduction Stanford ML 7 Support Vector Machine Stanford ML 6 Evaluate Algorithms Princeton Algorithms P1W4 Priority Queues and Symbol Tables Stanford ML 5 Neural Networks Learning Princeton Algorithms P1W3 Mergesort and Quicksort Stanford ML 4 Neural Networks Basics Princeton Algorithms P1W2 Stack and Queue, Basic Sorts Stanford ML 3 Classification Problems Stanford ML 2 Multivariate Regression and Normal Equation Princeton Algorithms P1W1 Union and Find Stanford ML 1 Introduction and Parameter Learning

Java basics 1


Hello World

public class HelloWorld {
    public static void main(String []args) {
        System.out.println("Hello World");


$ javac compile java source code
$ java HelloWorld: run

basic syntax

  • case sensitive
  • the first letter of class name should be capital
  • the first letter of method name should be lower-case
  • source file name should be the same as the class name
  • main program public static void main(String []args)

java identifier

all classes, variables and methods

  • start with letter, dollar sign $, underline _
  • then followed by any combination of all character
  • keyword cannot be identifier
  • case sensitive
  • legal: age, $salary, _value

java decorator

  • access control: default, public, protected, private
  • non-access: final, abstract, strictfp

java variable

  • local
  • calss (static)
  • non-static

java array

java enumerate

limit the values of the variable

class FreshJuice {
   enum FreshJuiceSize{ SMALL, MEDUIM, LARGE }
   FreshJuiceSize size;
public class FreshJuiceTest {
   public static void main(String []args){
      FreshJuice juice = new FreshJuice();
      juice.size = FreshJuice. FreshJuiceSize.MEDUIM ;

java comment

/* multi
// single
       /* single */

java inherit

super class: the class being inheritted
subclass: the class inheritting

objects and classes

object: an instance of a class
class: the template to creat a set of objects

java class

public class Dog{
  String breed;
  int age;
  String color;
  void barking(){
  void hungry(){
  void sleeping(){


  • local: in method void{}
  • member: in class, outside method
  • class: in class, outside method, must be static


the name of this method must be the same with the class
must call a constructor while creating an object
can have multiple constructors

public class Puppy{
    public Puppy(){
    public Puppy(String name){
        // single params:name

create objects

  • declare an object, including name and type
  • use keyword new to create
  • initialize by calling constructor
public class Puppy{
   public Puppy(String name){
      //single params:name
      System.out.println("dog name : " + name ); 
   public static void main(String []args){
      // new a Puppy
      Puppy myPuppy = new Puppy( "tommy" );

access variable and method

ObjectReference = new Constructor();

class example

public class Puppy{
   int puppyAge;
   public Puppy(String name){
      // single:name
      System.out.println("dog name : " + name ); 
   public void setAge( int age ){
       puppyAge = age;
   public int getAge( ){
       System.out.println("age : " + puppyAge ); 
       return puppyAge;
   public static void main(String []args){
      /* create */
      Puppy myPuppy = new Puppy( "tommy" );
      /* set age */
      myPuppy.setAge( 2 );
      /* get age */
      myPuppy.getAge( );
      /*access */
      System.out.println("value : " + myPuppy.puppyAge ); 

source declare regulation

  • only one public class in one source file
  • multiple non-public class in on source file
  • the name of the source file should be the same as the public class - if a class is defined in a package, package should be the first line in the source file
  • if there are import command, it should be between package command and the class defination
  • import and package commands are in effect for all classes

java package

package is used to classify the class and connection


locate source files or class



public class Employee{
   String name;
   int age;
   String designation;
   double salary;
   // Employee 
   public Employee(String name){ = name;
   // set age
   public void empAge(int empAge){
      age =  empAge;
   /* set designation*/
   public void empDesignation(String empDesig){
      designation = empDesig;
   /* set salary*/
   public void empSalary(double empSalary){
      salary = empSalary;
   /* print */
   public void printEmployee(){
      System.out.println("name:"+ name );
      System.out.println("age:" + age );
      System.out.println("designation:" + designation );
      System.out.println("salary:" + salary);

call this example

public class EmployeeTest{
   public static void main(String args[]){
      /* new two */
      Employee empOne = new Employee("RUNOOB1");
      Employee empTwo = new Employee("RUNOOB2");
      // call

basic data type

type var = value;


  • byte: 8 bits; integer; -128 - 127
  • short: 16 bits; integer; to
  • int: 32 bits; integer; to
  • long: 64 bits; integer; to long a = 100L
  • float: single precision; 32 bits; float f1=243.5f
  • double: double precision; 64 bits; double d1=123.4
  • boolean: true or false; boolean one = true
  • char: unicode; char letter = 'A'

cite type

Site site = new Site('example')

java constant

final double PI = 3.14159;

preceding 0 represents octal; 0x is hexa

escaping character:

char meaning
\n newline (0x0a)
\r return (0x0d)
\f new page(0x0c)
\b backspace (0x08)
\s space (0x20)
\t table
" double quote
' single quote
\\ |
\ddd octal char (ddd)
\uxxxx hexa Unicode char (xxxx)

auto type conversion

char c1 = 'a';
int i1 = c1;

low ————————————-> high
byte,short,char—> int —> long—> float —> double

forced type conversion

int i1 = 123;
byte b = (byte) i1;

java variable

int a, b, c;         // :a、 b、c
int d = 3, e, f = 5; // 
byte z = 22;         // 
String s = "runoob";  // 
double pi = 3.14159; // 
char x = 'x';        // 


public class Employee{
   // visible to son
   public String name;
   // private
   private double salary;
   // set value
   public Employee (String empName){
      name = empName;
   //set salary
   public void setSalary(double empSal){
      salary = empSal;
   // print
   public void printEmp(){
      System.out.println("name : " + name );
      System.out.println("salary : " + salary);
   public static void main(String args[]){
      Employee empOne = new Employee("RUNOOB");

static variable

When the type is public static final, the static variable name must be all capital.

public class Employee {
    //salary is static private
    private static double salary;
    // DEPARTMENT is a const
    public static final String DEPARTMENT = "developer";
    public static void main(String args[]){
    salary = 10000;

java decorator

access control

decorator current class same package son class other package
public Y Y Y Y
protected Y Y Y N
default Y Y N N
private Y N N N

default(no keyword)

Default var: in the table
Default method: public


class AudioPlayer {
   protected boolean openSpeaker(Speaker sp) {
class StreamingAudioPlayer {
   boolean openSpeaker(Speaker sp) {
      // the son class reload the method from father class


  • public method(father) must be public in son
  • protected method(father) must be public or protected in son

non access decorator

  • Static: create class method and variable
  • Final: decorate class, method and variable; final class cannot be inheritted; method cannot be redefined by son class; variable is constant
  • Abstract: abstract class and method
  • Synchronized, volatile: thread programming
public class InstanceCounter {
   private static int numInstances = 0;
   protected static int getCount() {
      return numInstances;
   private static void addInstance() {
 // constructor: name must be the same as the class
   InstanceCounter() {
   public static void main(String[] arguments) {
      System.out.println("Starting with " +
      InstanceCounter.getCount() + " instances");
      for (int i = 0; i < 500; ++i){
         new InstanceCounter();
      System.out.println("Created " +
      InstanceCounter.getCount() + " instances");


the static variables are independent upon objects; only one copy of it no matter how many objects
the static methods are independent upon objects, cannot use non static variables


  • final var: the citation cannot be directed to different object, but data in the final object can be changed
  • final method: can be inheritted by son class, cannnot be changed
  • final class: cannot be inheritted


use it to expand the class in the future

public abstract class SuperClass{
    abstract void m(); //
class SubClass extends SuperClass{
      void m(){


visited by one thread at one time


public transient int limit = 55;   // no
public int b; // yes


force to read the value from RAM every time. So two different thred will read the same value

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