Read "Dynamo, Amazon’s Highly Available Key-value Store" Read "Bigtable, A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data" Read "Streaming Systems" 3, Watermarks Read "Streaming Systems" 1&2, Streaming 101 Read "F1, a distributed SQL database that scales" Read "Zanzibar, Google’s Consistent, Global Authorization System" Read "Spanner, Google's Globally-Distributed Database" Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 12, The Future of Data Systems IOS development with Swift Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 10&11, Batch and Stream Processing Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 9, Consistency and Consensus Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 8, Distributed System Troubles Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 7, Transactions Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 6, Partitioning Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 5, Replication Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 3&4, Storage, Retrieval, Encoding Read "Designing Data-intensive applications" 1&2, Foundation of Data Systems Three cases of binary search TAMU Operating System 2 Memory Management TAMU Operating System 1 Introduction Overview in cloud computing 2 TAMU Operating System 7 Virtualization TAMU Operating System 6 File System TAMU Operating System 5 I/O and Disk Management TAMU Operating System 4 Synchronization TAMU Operating System 3 Concurrency and Threading TAMU Computer Networks 5 Data Link Layer TAMU Computer Networks 4 Network Layer TAMU Computer Networks 3 Transport Layer TAMU Computer Networks 2 Application Layer TAMU Computer Networks 1 Introduction Overview in distributed systems and cloud computing 1 A well-optimized Union-Find implementation, in Java A heap implementation supporting deletion TAMU Advanced Algorithms 3, Maximum Bandwidth Path (Dijkstra, MST, Linear) TAMU Advanced Algorithms 2, B+ tree and Segment Intersection TAMU Advanced Algorithms 1, BST, 2-3 Tree and Heap TAMU AI, Searching problems Factorization Machine and Field-aware Factorization Machine for CTR prediction TAMU Neural Network 10 Information-Theoretic Models TAMU Neural Network 9 Principal Component Analysis TAMU Neural Network 8 Neurodynamics TAMU Neural Network 7 Self-Organizing Maps TAMU Neural Network 6 Deep Learning Overview TAMU Neural Network 5 Radial-Basis Function Networks TAMU Neural Network 4 Multi-Layer Perceptrons TAMU Neural Network 3 Single-Layer Perceptrons Princeton Algorithms P1W6 Hash Tables & Symbol Table Applications Stanford ML 11 Application Example Photo OCR Stanford ML 10 Large Scale Machine Learning Stanford ML 9 Anomaly Detection and Recommender Systems Stanford ML 8 Clustering & Principal Component Analysis Princeton Algorithms P1W5 Balanced Search Trees TAMU Neural Network 2 Learning Processes TAMU Neural Network 1 Introduction Stanford ML 7 Support Vector Machine Stanford ML 6 Evaluate Algorithms Princeton Algorithms P1W4 Priority Queues and Symbol Tables Stanford ML 5 Neural Networks Learning Princeton Algorithms P1W3 Mergesort and Quicksort Stanford ML 4 Neural Networks Basics Princeton Algorithms P1W2 Stack and Queue, Basic Sorts Stanford ML 3 Classification Problems Stanford ML 2 Multivariate Regression and Normal Equation Princeton Algorithms P1W1 Union and Find Stanford ML 1 Introduction and Parameter Learning

Some Golang concurrency concepts




Channels are great for communication among goroutines.

By default, sends and receives block until the other side is ready. This allows goroutines to synchronize without explicit locks or condition variables.

Sends to a buffered channel block only when the buffer is full. Receives block when the buffer is empty.

The code is using Golang channel technique to check if the in-order transversal sequences of two binary tree are the same. Notice that in order to use range to receive data from channel, we must close the channel on the sender side after all sending jobs are done, otherwise it will cause a dead lock.

package main

import (

// Walk walks the tree t sending all values
// from the tree to the channel ch.
func Walk(t *tree.Tree, ch chan int) {
	WalkTree(t, ch)

func WalkTree(t *tree.Tree, ch chan int) {
	if t == nil {
	WalkTree(t.Left, ch)
	ch <- t.Value
	WalkTree(t.Right, ch)

// Same determines whether the trees
// t1 and t2 contain the same values.
func Same(t1, t2 *tree.Tree) bool {
	c1 := make(chan int)
	c2 := make(chan int)
	go Walk(t1, c1)
	go Walk(t2, c2)
	for i := range c1 {
		if i != <-c2 {
			return false
	return true

func main() {
	fmt.Println(Same(tree.New(1), tree.New(1)))

Daisy chain example

Rob Pike gave following example at Google I/O 2012.

package main

import "fmt"

func pass(left, right chan int){
    left <- 1 + <- right

func main(){
    const n = 50
    leftmost := make(chan int)
    right := leftmost
    left := leftmost

    for i := 0; i< n; i++ {
        right = make(chan int)
        // the chain is constructed from the end
        go pass(left, right) // the first goroutine holds (leftmost, new chan)
        left = right         // the second and following goroutines hold (last right chan, new chan)
    go func(c chan int){ c <- 1}(right)
    fmt.Println("sum:", <- leftmost)


Mutual exclusion to make sure only one goroutine can access a variable at a time to avoid conflicts. The conventional name for the data structure that provides it is mutex.

Go’s standard library provides mutual exclusion with sync.Mutex and its two methods:

  • Lock
  • Unlock

We can define a block of code to be executed in mutual exclusion by surrounding it with a call to Lock and Unlock as shown on the Inc method.

We can also use defer to ensure the mutex will be unlocked as in the Value method.

package main

import (

// SafeCounter is safe to use concurrently.
type SafeCounter struct {
	v   map[string]int
	mux sync.Mutex

// Inc increments the counter for the given key.
func (c *SafeCounter) Inc(key string) {
	// Lock so only one goroutine at a time can access the map c.v.

// Value returns the current value of the counter for the given key.
func (c *SafeCounter) Value(key string) int {
	// Lock so only one goroutine at a time can access the map c.v.
	defer c.mux.Unlock()
	return c.v[key]

func main() {
	c := SafeCounter{v: make(map[string]int)}
	for i := 0; i < 1000; i++ {
		go c.Inc("somekey")


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